Background: Rapid resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common feature after intestinal bypass surgery bypassing the duodenum and parts of the jejunum. However, the parameters determining the individual chance of remission are imprecisely defined. Methods: Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch and sleeve gastrectomy (BPD-DS) was performed in n = 86 patients with T2DM (mean age 50 years, range 26–68, 51 females; BMI 47 kg/m2, range 26–71). The patients were retrospectively divided into 4 groups according to the treatment modality and the duration of insulin treatment preoperatively: n = 18 patients were treated with oral antidiabetic drugs only (group 1); n = 32, n = 24, and n = 12 patients were treated with insulin for less than 5 years, for 5–10 years, and for more than 10 years (groups 2, 3, and 4), respectively. Results: At discharge from hospital, all patients of groups 1 and 2 were free of insulin usage, 30% and 75% of the patients of groups 3 and 4 used up to 48 units of insulin per day (mean 24, n = 16). After 1 year, only 4 patients of group 4 permanently required small amounts of insulin (mean 17 units per day) to keep blood glucose below 200 mg/dl. These 4 patients had been using insulin preoperatively for 13, 15, 22, and 25 years. In 3 of these 4 patients, fasting C-peptide was measured and found to be low (<1.2 ng/ml). The rate of complete remission of diabetes for the whole study population was 91%. Conclusion: BPD-DS reliably causes rapid and complete remission of T2DM in all patients on oral antidiabetic drugs and in patients with insulin treatment for less than 5 years. In patients with insulin treatment longer than 5 or 10 years, complete remission rates decline to 88 and 66%, respectively. A low C-peptide preoperatively might be a specific adverse prognostic parameter for the chance of diabetes remission.

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