Introduction: Combination therapy of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies and platinum-based chemotherapy has been widely used as a first-line treatment for patients with unresectable advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in clinical settings; however, prognostic biomarkers associated with survival outcomes have not been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We enrolled 147 previously untreated patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with a combination therapy of anti-PD-1/-PD-L1 antibodies and platinum-based chemotherapy at eight institutions in Nagano Prefecture between December 2018 and April 2023. We evaluated the prognostic value of the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), a systemic inflammatory nutritional biomarker calculated from body weight and serum albumin level, for patients with NSCLC treated with a combination therapy of anti-PD-1/-PD-L1 antibodies and platinum-based chemotherapy. Results: The cutoff value of the GNRI was set at 92. The high GNRI and low GNRI groups included 88 and 59 patients, respectively. The median follow-up period was 15.9 months. The overall survival (OS) in the high GNRI group was significantly longer than that in the low GNRI group (27.9 vs. 15.6 months, p = 0.015). Multivariate analysis revealed that a high GNRI was an independently favorable prognostic predictor for OS (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–2.86; p = 0.031). Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the GNRI is a useful prognostic predictor in patients with NSCLC treated with a combination therapy of anti-PD-1/-PD-L1 antibodies and platinum-based chemotherapy in clinical settings.

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