Background: Osimertinib, a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung carcinoma resistant to first- or second-generation EGFR-TKIs in patients in whom an EGFR T790M mutation has been detected. Detection of the T790M mutation using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is less invasive than a tissue re-biopsy, including a transbronchial lung biopsy; however, the prognostic implications of the T790M mutation in ctDNA have not been fully elucidated. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of non-small cell lung carcinoma patients in whom an EGFR T790M mutation had been detected at our hospital and assessed the clinical outcomes of osimertinib for these patients in terms of detection sites. Results: An EGFR T790M mutation was detected in 32 non-small cell lung carcinoma patients, of whom 21 (65.6%) underwent osimertinib treatment after detection of the mutation. The mutation was detected using plasma samples in 10 patients (47.6%; liquid biopsy group), while it was detected using tissue samples in 11 patients (52.4%; tissue biopsy group). Liver and bone metastases were more frequently observed in patients in the liquid biopsy group than in the tissue biopsy group (30.0 vs. 0% and 60.0 vs. 18.2%, respectively). The median progression-free survival time was significantly shorter in the liquid biopsy group (132.0 days) than in the tissue biopsy group (682.0 days). The median overall survival time in the liquid biopsy group was 376.0 days, whereas that in the tissue biopsy group was not reached during our observation period. Conclusions: Non-small cell lung carcinoma patients in whom an EGFR T790M mutation was detected in plasma samples demonstrated a poorer response to osimertinib than those in whom the mutation was detected in tissue specimens.

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