Purpose: Quality of sleep (QoS), anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL) are common issues among breast cancer patients. Prospective longitudinal studies of QoS, anxiety, depression, and QoL in breast cancer patients are lacking. The aim of this study was to find out whether there is a proper treatment point associated with QoS, anxiety, depression, and QoL during early treatment of breast cancer patients. Methods: We used 4 self-report questionnaires about QoS, anxiety, depression, and QoL. QoS was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, anxiety was measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory, depression was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, and QoL was measured with the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form. Patients were assessed at the time of surgery, at the beginning of chemotherapy, and at the end of chemotherapy. Clinicopathological information was collected for analysis. Results: Fifty-two patients were enrolled in this study, and 29 completed 3 self-report questionnaires. QoS, anxiety, and depression showed no differences during the early treatment period. However, QoL changed during that period (p = 0.004). Type of breast surgery (total mastectomy vs. breast-conserving surgery) showed a relationship with QoS during the entire treatment period, but with anxiety only at the time of surgery (p = 0.002). Although the sample size was too small, the total mastectomy group showed better results. Conclusion: Breast cancer patients experience sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, and loss of QoL. During the period of treatment, these do not change significantly, but these symptoms are often overlooked. Providing sufficient explanations about the treatment and prognosis of breast cancer and mental support for breast cancer patients prior to treatment will help to improve patients’ QoS, anxiety, depression, and QoL.

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