Background: The clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) differ in patients with and without cirrhosis. Objective: We aimed to investigate the long-term outcomes of noncirrhotic HCC patients after curative resection. Methods: We retrospectively examined 649 consecutive patients with HCC who underwent curative resection from 1996 to 2012; 387 (59.6%) were cirrhotic and 262 (40.4%) were noncirrhotic. Results: The mean age was 54.7 years, and 511 (78.7%) of the study participants were men. The most common cause of HCC was hepatitis B virus (n = 419, 64.6%). Noncirrhotic tumors were larger and more advanced than cirrhotic tumors. However, the noncirrhotic group showed better disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after resection than the cirrhotic group (median 64.0 vs. 56.0 months for OS and 48.0 vs. 31.0 months for DFS, p < 0.05). The predictors for HCC recurrence were cirrhosis, tumor number, portal vein invasion, and major surgery. Conclusions: Noncirrhotic HCC showed better DFS and OS after resection than cirrhotic HCC, although noncirrhotic HCC presented more aggressively.

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