Clinical symptoms of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are based on an excessive inflammatory response. Not only the diversity of the putative underlying etiologies of this rare syndrome but also the subsequent large variety of symptoms complicate the diagnosis of HLH in adult patients. However, early diagnosis and immediate treatment initiation are imperative for clinical outcome. In this article, we will review the diagnostic criteria of HLH and, in this context, discuss 6 cases, each of whom presented with a different clinical appearance causally associated with distinct malignant and nonmalignant diseases, exemplifying the spectrum of associations and manifestations of HLH.

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