Background: There are few background data on the impact of clinical factors on neurotoxicity and prognosis in patients treated with adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) chemotherapy. Methods: 102 stage II high-risk and stage III colorectal cancer patients were treated for 6 months with adjuvant CAPOX, then they were followed up. Associations between clinical variables, metabolic syndrome components, smoking and neurotoxicity were evaluated by the χ2 test. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was applied to graph disease-free survival (DFS). Univariate analysis was done with the log-rank test. Cox's proportional hazards regression was used to analyze the effect of several risk factors on DFS. Results: Significant associations were found between diabetes (p < 0.001), BMI (p = 0.01) and the occurrence of chronic neurotoxicity. After a median follow-up of 46 months, 14 patients (13.7%) had suffered recurrence. An analysis of the prognostic factors for DFS showed that prognosis is unfavorable for patients with high lymph-nodal involvement (HR: 5.23, p = 0.0007), diabetes (HR: 4.86; p = 0.03) and a BMI ≥25 (HR: 3.69, p = 0.002). Discussion: Common mediators in diabetes and obesity could be involved in peripheral neuropathy and in stimulating micro-metastases. Further studies are necessary to explain this interesting connection between diabetes, obesity and colon cancer.

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