Objectives: The clinical significance of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), aquaporin-3 (AQP3), and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) expression was analyzed in a large number of patients with colon cancer. Methods: AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 expression was investigated based on the immunohistochemistry of tissue microarray specimens from 486 colon cancer patients who underwent curative surgery. Scores were given to the staining intensity and percentage of positive cells, and the staining score was defined as the sum of these scores then used to categorize the AQP expression as negative, weakly AQP-positive, or strongly AQP-positive. Results: A total of 298 (61.3%) patients were identified as strongly AQP1-positive (staining score ≥6), while 38 (7.8%) were strongly AQP3-positive and 145 (29.8%) were strongly AQP5-positive. The overexpression of AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in a multivariate logistic analysis (AQP1, p = 0.026; AQP3, p = 0.023; AQP5, p = 0.003). While the multivariate survival analysis, which included age, histology, TNM stage, and CEA level showed that the expression of AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 had no effect on the overall survival and disease-free survival. Conclusions: The current study found a significant correlation between AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 expression and lymph node metastasis in patients with surgically resected colon cancer.

Ku G, Tan IB, Yau T, Boku N, Laohavinij S, Cheng AL, Kang YK, de Lima Lopes G: Management of colon cancer: resource-stratified guidelines from the Asian Oncology Summit 2012. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:e470-e481.
Ribatti D, Ranieri G, Annese T, Nico B: Aquaporins in cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 2014;1840:1550-1553.
Willaert W, Mareel M, Van De Putte D, Van Nieuwenhove Y, Pattyn P, Ceelen W: Lymphatic spread, nodal count and the extent of lymphadenectomy in cancer of the colon. Cancer Treat Rev 2014;40:405-413.
El Hindy N, Bankfalvi A, Herring A, Adamzik M, Lambertz N, Zhu Y, Siffert W, Sure U, Sandalcioglu IE: Correlation of aquaporin-1 water channel protein expression with tumor angiogenesis in human astrocytoma. Anticancer Res 2013;33:609-613.
Frede J, Fraser SP, Oskay-Ozcelik G, Hong Y, Ioana Braicu E, Sehouli J, Gabra H, Djamgoz MB: Ovarian cancer: ion channel and aquaporin expression as novel targets of clinical potential. Eur J Cancer 2013;49:2331-2344.
Liu YL, Matsuzaki T, Nakazawa T, Murata S, Nakamura N, Kondo T, Iwashina M, Mochizuki K, Yamane T, Takata K, Katoh R: Expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in normal and neoplastic lung tissues. Hum Pathol 2007;38:171-178.
Mobasheri A, Barrett-Jolley R: Aquaporin water channels in the mammary gland: from physiology to pathophysiology and neoplasia. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2014;19:91-102.
Verkman AS: Aquaporins. Curr Biol 2013;23:R52-R55.
Jung HJ, Park JY, Jeon HS, Kwon TH: Aquaporin-5: a marker protein for proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cells. PLoS One 2011;6:e28492.
Lee SJ, Chae YS, Kim JG, Kim WW, Jung JH, Park HY, Jeong JY, Park JY, Jung HJ, Kwon TH: Aqp5 expression predicts survival in patients with early breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 2014;21:375-383.
Yoshida T, Hojo S, Sekine S, Sawada S, Okumura T, Nagata T, Shimada Y, Tsukada K: Expression of aquaporin-1 is a poor prognostic factor for stage II and III colon cancer. Mol Clin Oncol 2013;1:953-958.
Li A, Lu D, Zhang Y, Li J, Fang Y, Li F, Sun J: Critical role of aquaporin-3 in epidermal growth factor-induced migration of colorectal carcinoma cells and its clinical significance. Oncol Rep 2013;29:535-540.
Matsuzaki T, Tajika Y, Ablimit A, Aoki T, Hagiwara H, Takata K: Aquaporins in the digestive system. Med Electron Microsc 2004;37:71-80.
Verkman AS, Anderson MO, Papadopoulos MC: Aquaporins: important but elusive drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2014;13:259-277.
Akagi Y, Adachi Y, Kinugasa T, Oka Y, Mizobe T, Shirouzu K: Lymph node evaluation and survival in colorectal cancer: review of population-based, prospective studies. Anticancer Res 2013;33:2839-2847.
Wang W, Li Q, Yang T, Bai G, Li D, Sun H: Expression of AQP5 and AQP8 in human colorectal carcinoma and their clinical significance. World J Surg Oncol 2012;10:242.
Aishima S, Kuroda Y, Nishihara Y, Taguchi K, Iguchi T, Taketomi A, Maehara Y, Tsuneyoshi M: Down-regulation of aquaporin-1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is related to tumor progression and mucin expression. Hum Pathol 2007;38:1819-1825.
Kawedia JD, Nieman ML, Boivin GP, Melvin JE, Kikuchi K, Hand AR, Lorenz JN, Menon AG: Interaction between transcellular and paracellular water transport pathways through aquaporin 5 and the tight junction complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007;104:3621-3626.
Martin TA, Jiang WG: Loss of tight junction barrier function and its role in cancer metastasis. Biochim Biophys Acta 2009;1788:872-891.
Moon C, Soria JC, Jang SJ, Lee J, Obaidul Hoque M, Sibony M, Trink B, Chang YS, Sidransky D, Mao L: Involvement of aquaporins in colorectal carcinogenesis. Oncogene 2003;22:6699-6703.
Kao SC, Armstrong N, Condon B, Griggs K, McCaughan B, Maltby S, Wilson A, Henderson DW, Klebe S: Aquaporin 1 is an independent prognostic factor in pleural malignant mesothelioma. Cancer 2012;118:2952-2961.
Sekine S, Shimada Y, Nagata T, Moriyama M, Omura T, Watanabe T, Hori R, Yoshioka I, Okumura T, Sawada S, Fukuoka J, Tsukada K: Prognostic significance of aquaporins in human biliary tract carcinoma. Oncol Rep 2012;27:1741-1747.
Mobasheri A, Airley R, Hewitt SM, Marples D: Heterogeneous expression of the aquaporin 1 (AQP1) water channel in tumors of the prostate, breast, ovary, colon and lung: a study using high density multiple human tumor tissue microarrays. Int J Oncol 2005;26:1149-1158.
Pei HP, Liu Z, Huang LS, Zhu H: Significance of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3 expression in colorectal carcinoma (in Chinese). Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2011;14:275-278.
Otto W, Rubenwolf PC, Burger M, Fritsche HM, Roßler W, May M, Hartmann A, Hofstadter F, Wieland WF, Denzinger S: Loss of aquaporin 3 protein expression constitutes an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival: an immunohistochemical study on stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer. BMC Cancer 2012;12:459.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.