Mongolia is one of the nations with the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide; it occurs in 54.1 cases per 100,000 people each year and is attributable to a high prevalence of chronic viral hepatitis. Although universal vaccination for hepatitis B virus has been implemented and sterilization of medical devices is being improved, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and C is still over 10%. Primary prevention of HCC is currently hard to achieve because of a limited availability of antiviral therapy. A significant proportion of HCC patients in Mongolia is diagnosed in the advanced stage, and this is due to the lack of a surveillance system using ultrasound and serum α-fetoprotein for early detection. Moreover, the resources for high resolution imaging such as computed tomography are absolutely insufficient in number, and the treatment modalities physicians can choose are largely restricted. Considering that HCC is the most prevalent malignancy in Mongolia, a systematic approach to prevention, early detection, and effective treatment is urgently required.

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