Mongolia is one of the nations with the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide; it occurs in 54.1 cases per 100,000 people each year and is attributable to a high prevalence of chronic viral hepatitis. Although universal vaccination for hepatitis B virus has been implemented and sterilization of medical devices is being improved, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and C is still over 10%. Primary prevention of HCC is currently hard to achieve because of a limited availability of antiviral therapy. A significant proportion of HCC patients in Mongolia is diagnosed in the advanced stage, and this is due to the lack of a surveillance system using ultrasound and serum α-fetoprotein for early detection. Moreover, the resources for high resolution imaging such as computed tomography are absolutely insufficient in number, and the treatment modalities physicians can choose are largely restricted. Considering that HCC is the most prevalent malignancy in Mongolia, a systematic approach to prevention, early detection, and effective treatment is urgently required.

Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P: Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005;55:74–108.
El-Serag HB, Rudolph KL: Hepatocellular carcinoma; epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology 2007;132:2557–2576.
El-Serag HB: Hepatocellular carcinoma: an epidemiologic view. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002;35(suppl 2):572–578.
Jernal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al: Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin 2009;59:225–249.
Liovet JM, Burroughs A, Bruix J: Hepatocellular carcinoma. Lancet 2003;362:1907–1917.
Yoshizawa H: Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus infection in Japan: projection to other countries in the foreseeable future. Oncology 2002;62(suppl 1):8–17.
World Health Organization: Hepatitis B vaccine. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2004;79:263.
Global surveillance and control of hepatitis C: report of a WHO Consultation organized in collaboration with the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board, Antwerp, Belgum. J Viral Hepat 1999;6:35–47.
Donato F, Tagger A, Gelatti U et al: Alcohol and hepatocellular carcinoma: the effect of lifetime intake and hepatitis virus infections in men and woman. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:323–331.
Gelatti U, Covolo L, Franceschini M, et al: Coffee consumption reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independently of its aetiology: a case-control study J Hepatol 2005;42:528–534.
Mongolian National Statistical Office Bulletin December 2006. 2006.
World Health Organization: The work of WHO in the Western Pacific region 2003–2004: report of the Regional Director to the Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, statistical annex. Manila, WHO, 2003, pp 190–205.
Mongolia Today: Country briefs. 2002.
Health Indicators. Mongolia, National Health Development Center, 2004.
Nymadawa P: Hepatitis B vaccination: worldwide and in Mongolia. Abstracts 10th Nat Conf ‘Current Topics of Virology’. Ulaanbaatar, 2004, pp 115–116.
Baatarkhuu O, Kim DY, Ahn SH, et al: Prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus among apparently healthy individuals in Mongolia: a population-based nationwide study. Liver Int 2008;28:1389–1395.
Cohen J: The scientific challenge of hepatitis C. Science 1999;285:26–30.
Stark K, Poggensee G, Hohne M, Bienzle U, Kiwelu I, Schreier E: Seroepidemiology of TT virus, GBV-C/HGV, and hepatitis viruses B, C, and E among women in a rural area of Tanzania. J Med Virol 2000;62:524–530.
Frank C, Mohamed MK, Strickland GT, et al: The role of parenteral antischistosomal therapy in the spread of hepatitis C virus in Egypt. Lancet 2000;355:887–891.
Davaalkham D, Ojima T, Nymadawa P, et al: Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection in Mongolian children: findings from a nationwide survey. J Med Virol 2006;78:466–472.
Ebright JR, Altantsetseg T, Oyungerel R: Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:1509–1515.
Tsatsralt-Od B, Takahashi M, Nishizawa T, et al: High prevalence of hepatitis B, C, and delta virus infections among blood donors in Mongolia. Arch Virol 2005;150:2513–2528.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.