Objectives: We investigated whether adjuvant hepatic arterial infusional chemotherapy (HAIC) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin reduces the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2008, 31 HCC patients received four cycles of adjuvant HAIC with 5-FU and cisplatin via port system after curative resection. During the same period, 62 patients, who did not take any adjuvant therapy, were selected as controls. Results: Tumor characteristics, such as distribution of TNM stage, pathologic differentiation, portal vein invasion, or microscopic invasion did not differ between control and adjuvant groups. During follow-up, recurrence developed in 11 adjuvant (35.5%) and 24 control patients (38.7%; p = 0.823). Tumor progression after recurrence was the cause of death in 2 adjuvant (28.6%) and 7 control patients (38.8%; p = 0.912). The 2-year recurrence rate was 9.1% in the adjuvant group and 4.2% in the control group, with the median recurrence-free survival time being 10.5 and 7.5 months, respectively (p = 0.324). The 3-year cumulative survival rate was 73.3% in the adjuvant group and 68.3% in the control group (p = 0.355). Conclusion: Adjuvant HAIC with 5-FU and cisplatin did not offer any beneficial effect on the recurrence after curative resection of HCC.

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