Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death not only in Japan but worldwide. Clinical Practice Guidelines for HCC were published in 2001 by the European Society of Study of the Liver (EASL) and in 2005 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD). However, these guidelines have proven to be somewhat unsuitable for Japanese patients. In 2005, supported by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for HCC were compiled. Based on ‘evidence-based’ guidelines and the consensus of an expert panel on HCC, the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH) published the Consensus-Based Clinical Practice Manual in 2007. In this article, the content of this manual, especially issues on surveillance, diagnosis, staging, and treatment, is summarized.