We retrospectively compared the outcome of 13 patients at our institution and that of 163 reported cases of pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with that of conventional HCC subdivided by tumor diameter (group A: less than 2 cm; group B: 2–5 cm, group C: more than 5 cm). The survival of patients with pedunculated HCC in the 163 reported cases was no different from that of group B, but less favorable than in group A (p < 0.01) and more favorable than in group C (p < 0.01). Among the 163 patients with pedunculated HCC, the 113 cases of surgically treated patients had higher survival than the 21 patients treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (n = 16) or transcatheter arterial infusion chemotherapy (n = 5) (p < 0.01) and than 29 conservatively treated patients (p < 0.001). A total of 70 patients out of 163 (42%) died within 1 year after diagnosis. Additionally, almost all cases of pedunculated HCC showed histologically moderately or poorly differentiated characteristics according to Edmondson and Stainer’s classification or the WHO classification. These results suggest that pedunculated HCC has not a favorable prognosis if appropriate surgical resection has not been performed very early within a few months because of its rapid progressive nature.

Eggel H: Über das primäre Carcinom der Leber. Beitr Pathol Anat Allg Pathol 1901;30:506–604.
Horie Y, Katoh S, Yoshida H, Imaoka T, Hirayama C: Pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma – report of three cases and review of the literature. Cancer 1983;51:746–751.
Anthony PP, James K: Pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma. Is it an entity? Histopathology 1987;11:403–414.
Craig JR, Peters RL, Edmondson RA, Omata M: Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver. A tumor of adolescents and young adults with distinctive clinicopathologic features. Cancer 1980;46:372–379.
Okuda K, Musha H, Nakajima Y, Kubo Y, Shimokawa Y, Nagasaki Y, Sawa Y, Jinnouchi S, Kaneko T, Obata H, Hisamatsu T, Motoike Y, Pokazaki UY, Koujiro M, Sakamoto K, Nakashima T: Clinicopathologic features of encapsulated hepatocellular carcinoma. A study of 26 cases. Cancer 1977;40:1240–1245.
Nakashima T, Koujiro M: Hepatocellular carcinoma; in Nakashima T, Koujiro M (eds): An Atlas of the Pathology. Tokyo, Springer, 1987, pp 7–8.
Edmondson HA, Steiner PE: Primary carcinoma of the liver. A study of 100 cases among 48,000 necropsies. Cancer 1954;7:462–503.
Gibson JB, Sobin LH: Histological typing of tumours of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas. International histological classification of tumors, Geneva, WHO, 1978, No. 20.
Cunningham PL, Nava H, Lopez C, Douglaus HO Jr: Pedunculated primary hepatocellular carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 1984;27:260–267.
Moritz MW, Shoji M, Sicard GA, Shioda R, DeSchryver K: Surgical therapy in two patients with pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma. Arch Surg 1988;123:772–774.
Nishizaki T, Matsushita T, Adachi E, Hayashi H, Sugimachi K: Pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma and surgical treatment. Br J Cancer 1933;67:115–118.
Touchika H, Kida H, Nakayama H, Yamaoka N, Nakasone T, Yamaguchi H, Tsuchida T: A case of pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma and review of the literature (in Japanese). Nihon Rinshou Geka Gakkai 1989;50:148–155.
Uetsuji S, Yamamura M, Yamamichi K, Komada N, Yamamoto M, Koreeda C, Uchiyama S, Kawa S, Tanaka T: Clinical investigation of extrahepatic growing hepatocellular carcinoma (in Japanese). Kan Tan Sui 1991;23:107–115.
Christiani H: Des néoplasmes congénitaux. J d’Anat Physiol 1981;27:249–272.
The General Rules for the Clinical and Pathological Study of Primary Liver Cancer, ed 3. Tokyo, Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan, 1992, p 20.
Kaplan GL, Meier P: Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc 1958;53:457–481.
Petro R, Pike MC: Conservation of the approximation (0-E2)/E in the log rank test for survival data on tumor incidence data. Biometrics 1973;29:579–584.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.