Malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses constitute less than 1% of all malignancies. Unfortunately, few prognostic factors have been identified regarding the efficacy of interventional therapy. Patients with carcinoma of the maxillary sinus frequently present with an advanced stage of disease and multimodality therapy is often proposed. Although some tumors appear to be more sensitive to preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy, a method of predicting and evaluating tumor behavior has not been recognized. Introduced as a means of identifying cell populations with abnormalities in total DNA content, flow-cytometric DNA analysis provides a quick and reliable means of tumor characterization for many malignancies. Although nuclear DNA content has been implicated as a prognostic factor in an increasing number of tumor types, current data on the role of DNA content in head and neck carcinoma is conflicting and incomplete. To evaluate the role of flow-cytometric DNA analysis in predicting therapeutic alternatives, 22 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus were reviewed. Patient outcome and histopathologic grade were retrospectively compared with flow-cytometric evaluations of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tumor specimens. Four of sixteen tumors (25%) were found to be aneuploid and were also associated with an increased survival rate (p < 0.01). This initial data emphasizes the possible usefulness of DNA measurement for characterization of squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus and stresses the need for further evaluation.

Lavertu P, Roberts JK, Kraus DH, et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses: The Cleveland Clinic experience 1977–1986. Laryngoscope 1989;99:1130–1136.
Johnson TS, Williamson KD, Cramer MM, Peters LJ: Flow cytometric analysis of head and neck carcinoma DNA index and S-fraction from paraffin-embedded sections: Comparison and malignancy grading. Cytometry 1985;6:461–470.
Merkel DE, Dresler LG, McGuire WL: Flow cytometry, cellular DNA content and prognosis in human malignancy. J Clin Oncol 1987;5:1690–1703.
Hedley DW, Freidlander ML, Taylor IW: Application of DNA flow cytometry to paraffin-embedded archival material for the study of aneuploidy and its clinical significance. Cytometry 1985;6:327–333.
Lovett EJ, Schnitzer B, Keren DF, et al: Application of flow cytometry to diagnostic pathology. Lab Invest 1984;50:115–140.
Hedley DW, Freidlander ML, Taylor IW, et al: Method for analysis of cellular DNA content of paraffin-embedded pathological material using flow cytometry. J Histochem Cytochem 1983;11:1333–1335.
American Joint Committee on Cancer: Manual for Staging of Cancer, ed. 4. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1992, p 45.
Barlogie B, Gohde W, Johnson DA: Determination of ploidy and proliferative characteristics of human solid tumors by pulse cytophotometry. Cancer Res 1978;38:3333–3339.
Norusis MJ: Advanced Statistics SPSS/PC + for IBM PC/XT/AT. Michigan, SPSS, 1986.
Barlogie B, Raber MN, Schumann J, et al: Flow cytometry in clinical cancer research. Cancer Res 1983;43:3982–3997.
Rua S, Comino A, Fruttero A, et al: Relationship between histologic features, DNA flow cytometry, and clinical behavior of squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx. Cancer 1991;67:141–149.
El-Naggar AK, Lopez-Varela V, Luna MA, et al: Intratumoral DNA content heterogeneity in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Sug 1992;118:169–173.
Bijman JT, Wagener DJT, Van Rennes H, et al: Flow cytometric evaluation of cell dispersion from human head and neck tumors. Cytometry 1985;6:334–341.
Walter MA, Peters GE, Peiper SC: Predicting radioresistance in early glottic squamous cell carcinoma by DNA content. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1991;100:523–526.
Barona de Guzman R, Martorell MA, Basterra J, et al: Analysis of DNA content in supraglottic epidermoid carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1993;108:706–710.
Holm LE, Jakobsson P, Killander D, et al: DNA and its synthesis in individual tumor cells from human upper respiratory tract squamous cell carcinomas. Laryngoscope 1980;90:1209–1224.
Sisson GA, Toriumi DM, Atiyah RA: Paranasal sinus malignancy: A comprehensive update. Laryngoscope 1989;99:143–150.
Ahmad K, Cordoba RB, Fayos JV: Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1981;107:48–51.
Mahmood JU, Suzuki K, Nomura T, Shingaki S, Nakajima T: The implication of DNA content and S-phase fraction in oral carcinomas with and without metastasis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1995;24:427–432.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.