This retrospective study compares the results obtained in 56 children with medulloblastoma treated with two different protocols at our center between 1975 and 1990. Since 1985 we have been enrolled in the medulloblastoma SIOP II protocol in which we have entered 27 patients. These patients form the SIOP group (SG) and the 29 children treated before 1985, the historical group (HG). When the two groups were compared for age and sex distribution, no differences were found; however, prognostic factors were worse in the HG than in SG: 21 versus 15 T3–T4 and 13 versus 8 high-risk, respectively. The relapse rate was 63% for the HG and 39% for the SG. Five-year disease-free survival was 31% for the HG and 56% for the SG (p = 0.037). Five-year survival was 52 and 70%, respectively (p = 0.055). When SG and HG were compared by stratifying for tumor size, surgical resection and the risk variable, better disease-free survival was obtained in SG than in HG. In a multivariate analysis, the HG and the high-risk proved to be variable independent predictors of poor survival. We observe an increase in survival in our patients with medulloblastoma.

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