7 out of 39 patients with pernicious anemia developed 9 different neoplasms during a period of 3–20 years after the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. These primary neoplasms originated from the lymph nodes, larynx, colon, stomach, kidney, meninges, maxillary sinus and eighth nerve. Treatment with vitamin B12 did not influence the development of tumor. Statistical analysis showed that the observed incidence of 9 neoplasms in this group was significantly higher than the expected 3.3 cases during the aggregate follow-up period (p=0.002). Although a higher incidence of neoplasms in patients with other underlying diseases does not necessarily indicate an association, a high degree of suspicion for neoplastic disease is justifiable in patients with pernicious anemia.

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