Introduction: This retrospective study investigated the efficacy and safety of nano-liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) plus 5-fluorouracil/L-leucovorin (5-FU/l-LV) treatment in the second-line or later setting for advanced pancreatic cancer under real-world conditions. Methods: Between June 2020 and September 2021, a total of 44 patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer treated with nal-IRI + 5-FU/l-LV in our affiliated hospitals were included. The prognosis, predictive factors (including systemic inflammation-based prognostic indicators), and adverse events were investigated. Results: The median age was 68 (interquartile range 62–73) years old, and 22 patients (50.0%) were male. Concerning tumor factors, 9 patients (20.5%) had local advanced disease and 35 patients (79.5%) had metastases. Twenty-five of the 44 patients were receiving second-line treatment, and 19 were receiving third-line or later treatment. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were 9.0 (range, 0.7–15.4) months and 4.4 (range, 0.6–15.4) months, respectively. The overall response rate was 5.3%. The disease control rate was 44.7%. Patients with a neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio of ≥2.7 had a significant risk of a poor OS (HR = 0.275, p = 0.017). Adverse events were manageable, although gastrointestinal symptoms and neutropenia were observed. The most common grade ≥3 adverse event was neutropenia, which was reported in 20% of patients. Conclusions: Nal-IRI + 5-FU/l-LV therapy was considered to be a useful regimen as second-line or later treatment for unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer, even in clinical practice.

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