Compared to other cells, except neural cells, the biggest property of neural cells is to have a particular electrical activity in each cell itself. The activity that shows a specific pattern will carry different information as a history of each neural cell. At present, we have examined the roles of neural impulses and revealed that a synaptic plasticity can be controlled by different patterned neural acitivites, such as different frequencies or oscillation patterns. Even though neural cells have similar genetic backgrounds, different environments give cells different neural activities and finally different characters of cells. Current studies have revealed that a particular pattern of neural activity, e.g. frequency, could be effective in some diseases. In response to environmental changes occurring throughout development and adult life, the brain reorganizes itself by adjusting the pattern of activity. In some cases, a particular pattern of neural acitivity decides the neural fate and should be able to control brain function even in higher functions. In the future, in order to understand the role of activity patterns and mechanisms of fundamental information processing in the brain, it will be necessary that the meaning of patterns is explained from molecular, biological and morphological perspectives, i.e., not only with metaphysical ‘phenomena’, but also at a physical ‘material’ level.