Objectives: Sleep bruxism (SB) is a parasomnia defined as a stereotyped movement disorder characterized by grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep. Pathophysiologically, SB is the result of biological and psychosocial influences. Treatment comprises behavioral, orthodontic and pharmacological interventions. While benzodiazepines and muscle relaxants have been reported by clinicians to reduce bruxism-related motor activity, placebo-controlled studies are lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of clonazepam (Rivotril®) as compared with placebo, utilizing polysomnography and psychometry. Method: Ten drug-free outpatients (6 females, 4 males), aged 46.5 ± 13.1 years, suffering from SB (ICD-10: F45.8; ICSD: 306.8) and having been treated by bite splints were included in the trial. Comorbidity was high: 7 patients presented nonorganic insomnia related to adjustment or anxiety disorders (5 patients) or depression (2 patients); all patients had a concomitant movement disorder (6 restless legs syndrome, 4 periodic leg movement disorder). After one adaptation night, patients received placebo and 1 mg clonazepam 1/2 hour before lights out in a single-blind, nonrandomized study design. Objective sleep quality was determined by polysomnography, subjective sleep and awakening quality by rating scales, objective awakening quality by psychometric tests. Clinical evaluation was based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Zung Depression (SDS) and Anxiety (SAS) Scales, the Quality of Life Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) Scale. Results: On admission, SB patients exhibited deteriorated PSQI, SAS, SDS and IRLSSG measures. As compared with placebo, 1 mg clonazepam significantly improved the mean bruxism index from 9.3 to 6.3/h of sleep. Furthermore, it significantly improved the total sleep period, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep latency and time awake during the total sleep period, and increased stage 2 sleep and movement time. Periodic leg movements decreased significantly, while the apnea index and apnea-hypopnea index increased marginally, but remained within normal limits. Subjective sleep quality improved as well, while in mood, performance and psychophysiology no changes were observed. Conclusion: Acute clonazepam therapy significantly improved not only the bruxism index but also objective and subjective sleep quality, with unchanged mood, performance and psychophysiological measures upon awakening, suggesting good tolerability of the drug.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.