Introduction: Clozapine-induced sialorrhea (CIS) is one of the most common side effects of clozapine use, while the mechanism remains unclear. Methods: A total of 51 schizophrenia patients taking clozapine were selected. Among them, 32 had sialorrhea, and 19 had no sialorrhea. Saliva metabolites were identified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS (UHPLC-MS/MS), and the differences in saliva metabolites in each group were analyzed through qualitatively searching HMDB, KEGG, and self-built databases, combined with multivariate statistics. After further evaluation by receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, the screened differential metabolites were enriched and topologically analyzed. Results: The biomarkers potentially related to CIS included 37 differential metabolites involving 17 metabolic pathways, mainly histidine metabolism (p < 0.05, impact = 0.50), pyrimidine metabolism (p < 0.05, impact = 0.08), and β-alanine metabolism (p < 0.05, impact = 0.06). Conclusion: Our study indicates that histidine metabolic pathway may contribute to the mechanism of CIS.

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