Introduction: In our previous study, we successfully constructed the recombinant brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-adeno-associated virus (AAV) modified by the influenza virus hemagglutinin-2 (HA2) and trans-transcriptional activator (TAT). BDNF-HA2TAT/AAV has been confirmed to have antidepression effects. BDNF-HA2TAT/AAV seems a promising therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as the BDNF plays an important role in the function of the nervous system. However, the effects of BDNF-HA2TAT/AAV on PTSD caused by the single prolonged stress (SPS) model are unknown. Methods: After the SPS model was established, BDNF-HA2TAT/AAV was administered (1 × 1011 vg per rat) through inhalation in the SPS + BDNF group for 2 weeks. Next, the rats underwent behavioral tests including an open-field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM), and a forced swimming test (FST). Sera and hippocampi were obtained from the rats, and an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay was performed to determine corticosterone concentration. Western blotting was conducted to determine BDNF, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), cAMP-response element-binding protein, and protein kinase B levels. Results: BDNF-HA2TAT/AAV released anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in OFT, EPM, and FST. BDNF-HA2TAT/AAV also results in high plasma concentrations of corticosterone, BDNF, and TrkB in the hippocampus. Conclusions: SPS is an excellent animal model to assess PTSD. BDNF-HA2TAT/AAV therapeutically effects PTSD caused by SPS, with changes seen in plasma corticosterone and BDNF-TrkB pathways within the hippocampus; therefore, BDNF-HA2TAT/AAV may be a promising treatment for patients with PTSD.