Introduction: Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) is a safe non-invasive neurostimulation technique used to improve cognitive and neuropsychiatric impairments. Combined outcome evaluation using event-related potentials (ERPs) and neuropsychological tests may allow a more thorough assessment of TBS treatment efficacy; however, some mixed results have been found, and their use remains scarce. Our main objective was to evaluate whether a session of TBS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can impact upon the performance of both neuropsychological and neurophysiological tests. Methods: This double-blind sham-controlled study involved 28 healthy adults, between 18 and 30 years. Volunteers were randomly allocated to receive excitatory (intermittent [iTBS]), inhibitory (continuous TBS [cTBS]) or sham stimulation on the left DLPFC. Subjects were evaluated using ERPs (auditory oddball paradigm P300) and neuropsychological tests (Trail making test [TMT] and Stroop test of words and colours [STWC]), using a pre-post stimulation protocol. Results: Inhibitory stimulation led to significantly delayed P300 peak latencies (p < 0.001), with no consistent change in N2P3 amplitudes. cTBS also significantly influenced the expected group performance in Stroop C and Stroop interference (p = 0.025) compared to the iTBS and sham groups. No significant results were found in TMT tests after TBS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that P300 and specific Stroop colour and words test parameters can be similarly influenced by the same TBS protocol. This emphasizes the importance of mixed evaluation using neuropsychological and neurophysiological resources in research associated with the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation and cognition.

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