Background: Gamma oscillations are essential for functional neural assembly formation underlying higher cerebral functions. Previous studies concerning gamma band power in schizophrenia have yielded diverse results. Methods: In this study, we assessed gamma band power in minimally treated patients with schizophrenia, their first-degree relatives and healthy controls during an oddball paradigm performance, as well as the relation between gamma power and cognitive performance. Results: We found a higher gamma power in the patient group than in the healthy controls at the P3, P4, Fz, Pz and T5 sites. Compared with their relatives, gamma power in the patients was only marginally higher over P3 and P4. We found a nearly significant inverse association between gamma power at F4 and Tower of London performance in the patients, as well as a significant inverse association between gamma power at T5 and verbal memory and working memory scores in the relatives. Conclusion: These results support higher total gamma power in association with schizophrenia and its inverse association with cognitive performance in patients and their first-degree relatives.

Lakatos P, Chen CM, O'Connell MN, Mills A, Schroeder CE: Neuronal oscillations and multisensory interaction in primary auditory cortex. Neuron 2007;53:279-292.
Doesburg SM, Roggeveen AB, Kitajo K, Ward LM: Large-scale gamma-band phase synchronization and selective attention. Cereb Cortex 2008;18:386-396.
Jensen O, Kaiser J, Lachaux JP: Human gamma-frequency oscillations associated with attention and memory. Trends Neurosci 2007;30:317-324.
Tallon-Baudry C, Bertrand O, Peronnet F, Pernier J: Induced γ-band activity during the delay of a visual short-term memory task in humans. J Neurosci 1998;18:4244-4254.
Singer W: Synchronization of cortical activity and its putative role in information processing and learning. Annu Rev Physiol 1993;55:349-374.
Rutishauser U, Ross IB, Mamelak AN, Schuman EM: Human memory strength is predicted by theta-frequency phase-locking of single neurons. Nature 2010;464:903-907.
Uhlhaas PJ, Pipa G, Lima B, Melloni L, Neuenschwander S, Nikolic D, Singer W: Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status. Front Integr Neurosci 2009;3:17.
Uhlhaas PJ, Singer W: Abnormal neural oscillations and synchrony in schizophrenia. Nat Rev Neurosci 2010;11:100-113.
Barr MS, Farzan F, Tran LC, Chen R, Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis ZJ: Evidence for excessive frontal evoked gamma oscillatory activity in schizophrenia during working memory. Schizophr Res 2010;121:146-152.
Coyle JT: Glutamate and schizophrenia: beyond the dopamine hypothesis. Cell Mol Neurobiol 2006;26:365-384.
Herrmann CS, Frund I, Lenz D: Human gamma-band activity: a review on cognitive and behavioral correlates and network models. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2010;34:981-992.
Minzenberg MJ, Firl AJ, Yoon JH, Gomes GC, Reinking C, Carter CS: Gamma oscillatory power is impaired during cognitive control independent of medication status in first-episode schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 2010;35:2590-2599.
Spencer KM, Nestor PG, Perlmutter R, Niznikiewicz MA, Klump MC, Frumin M, Shenton ME, McCarley RW: Neural synchrony indexes disordered perception and cognition in schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101:17288-17293.
Winterer G, Coppola R, Goldberg TE, Egan MF, Jones DW, Sanchez CE, Weinberger DR: Prefrontal broadband noise, working memory, and genetic risk for schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:490-500.
Gattaz WF, Mayer S, Ziegler P, Platz M, Gasser T: Hypofrontality on topographic EEG in schizophrenia: correlations with neuropsychological and psychopathological parameters. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1992;241:328-332.
Herrmann CS, Demiralp T: Human EEG gamma oscillations in neuropsychiatric disorders. Clin Neurophysiol 2005;116:2719-2733.
Jones NC, Reddy M, Anderson P, Salzberg MR, O'Brien TJ, Pinault D: Acute administration of typical and atypical antipsychotics reduces EEG gamma power, but only the preclinical compound LY379268 reduces the ketamine-induced rise in gamma power. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2012;15:657-668.
Scheeringa R, Fries P, Petersson KM, Oostenveld R, Grothe I, Norris DG, Hagoort P, Bastiaansen MC: Neuronal dynamics underlying high- and low-frequency EEG oscillations contribute independently to the human BOLD signal. Neuron 2011;69:572-583.
Niessing J, Ebisch B, Schmidt KE, Niessing M, Singer W, Galuske RA: Hemodynamic signals correlate tightly with synchronized gamma oscillations. Science 2005;309:948-951.
Manoach DS: Prefrontal cortex dysfunction during working memory performance in schizophrenia: reconciling discrepant findings. Schizophr Res 2003;60:285-298.
Cardno AG, Marshall EJ, Coid B, Macdonald AM, Ribchester TR, Davies NJ, Venturi P, Jones LA, Lewis SW, Sham PC, Gottesman II, Farmer AE, McGuffin P, Reveley AM, Murray RM: Heritability estimates for psychotic disorders: the Maudsley twin psychosis series. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:162-168.
Fisahn A, Neddens J, Yan L, Buonanno A: Neuregulin-1 modulates hippocampal gamma oscillations: implications for schizophrenia. Cereb Cortex 2009;19:612-618.
Steinecke A, Gampe C, Valkova C, Kaether C, Bolz J: Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is necessary for the correct migration of cortical interneurons. J Neurosci 2012;32:738-745.
Gonzalez-Burgos G, Lewis DA: NMDA receptor hypofunction, parvalbumin-positive neurons, and cortical gamma oscillations in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2012;38:950-957.
Lewis DA, Sweet RA: Schizophrenia from a neural circuitry perspective: advancing toward rational pharmacological therapies. J Clin Invest 2009;119:706-716.
Suazo V, Díez A, Martín C, Ballesteros A, Casado P, Martin-Loeches M, Molina V: Elevated noise power in gamma band related to negative symptoms and memory deficit in schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2012;38:270-275.
Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1987;13:261-276.
Segarra N, Bernardo M, Gutiérrez F, Justicia A, Fernández-Egea E, Allas M, Salfont G, Contreras F, Gascón J, Soler-Insa PA, Menchon JM, Junque C, Keefe RS: Spanish validation of the Brief Assessment in Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Eur Psychiatry 2011;26:69-79.
Wechsler D: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, ed 3. San Antonio, Psychological Corporation, 1997.
Bledowski C, Prvulovic D, Hoechstetter K, Scherg M, Wibral M, Goebel R, Linden DE: Localizing P300 generators in visual target and distractor processing: a combined event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurosci 2004;24:9353-9360.
Almeida PR, Vieira JB, Silveira C, Ferreira-Santos F, Chaves PL, Barbosa F, Marques-Teixeira J: Exploring the dynamics of P300 amplitude in patients with schizophrenia. Int J Psychophysiol 2011;81:159-168.
McCarley RW, Salisbury DF, Hirayasu Y, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Tohen M, Zarate C, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, Shenton ME: Association between smaller left posterior superior temporal gyrus volume on magnetic resonance imaging and smaller left temporal P300 amplitude in first-episode schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:321-331.
Ongür D, Lundy M, Greenhouse I, Shinn AK, Menon V, Cohen BM, Renshaw PF: Default mode network abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2010;183:59-68.
Pomarol-Clotet E, Salvador R, Sarró S, Gomar J, Vila F, Martínez A, Guerrero A, Ortiz-Gil J, Sans-Sansa B, Capdevila A, Cebamanos JM, McKenna PJ: Failure to deactivate in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: dysfunction of the default mode network? Psychol Med 2008;38:1185-1193.
Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Thermenos HW, Milanovic S, Tsuang MT, Faraone SV, McCarley RW, Shenton ME, Green AI, Nieto-Castanon A, LaViolette P, Wojcik J, Gabrieli JD, Seidman LJ: Hyperactivity and hyperconnectivity of the default network in schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009;106:1279-1284.
Manoach DS: Prefrontal cortex dysfunction during working memory performance in schizophrenia: reconciling discrepant findings. Schizophr Res 2003;60:285-298.
Manoach DS, Gollub RL, Benson ES, Searl MM, Goff DC, Halpern E, Saper CB, Rauch SL: Schizophrenic subjects show aberrant fMRI activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia during working memory performance. Biol Psychiatry 2000;48:99-109.
Womelsdorf T, Fries P: Neuronal coherence during selective attentional processing and sensory-motor integration. J Physiol Paris 2006;100:182-193.
Doege K, Bates AT, White TP, Das D, Boks MP, Liddle PF: Reduced event-related low frequency EEG activity in schizophrenia during an auditory oddball task. Psychophysiology 2009;46:566-577.
Fernández A, Zuluaga P, Abásolo D, Gómez C, Serra A, Méndez MA, Hornero R: Brain oscillatory complexity across the life span. Clin Neurophysiol 2012;123:2154-2162.
Fleck JI, Green DL, Stevenson JL, Payne L, Bowden EM, Jung-Beeman M, Kounios J: The transliminal brain at rest: baseline EEG, unusual experiences, and access to unconscious mental activity. Cortex 2008;44:1353-1363.
Saas LA, Parnas J: Explaining schizophrenia: the relevance of phenomenology; in Chung M, Fulford B, Graham G (eds): Reconceiving Schizophrenia. New York, Oxford UP, 2007, pp 63-92.
Basar-Eroglu C, Brand A, Hildebrandt H, Karolina Kedzior K, Mathes B, Schmiedt C: Working memory related gamma oscillations in schizophrenia patients. Int J Psychophysiol 2007;64:39-45.
Lee KH, Williams LM, Haig A, Gordon E: ‘Gamma (40 Hz) phase synchronicity' and symptom dimensions in schizophrenia. Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2003;8:57-71.
Symond MP, Harris AW, Gordon E, Williams LM: ‘Gamma synchrony' in first-episode schizophrenia: a disorder of temporal connectivity? Am J Psychiatry 2005;162:459-465.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.