Background: Metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance and increased leptin levels, were noted in patients with schizophrenia who had received antipsychotics. In this study, we examined the leptin levels of antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenic patients. Method: Seventeen antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 16 sex-, age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched subjects were recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic and community, respectively. Serum leptin levels of the healthy controls and antipsychotic-naïve patients were compared. The relationships between leptin level and gender, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score, and duration of illness were analyzed by Spearman’s correlation. Results: Compared with sex-, age- and BMI-matched subjects, the female schizophrenic patients had elevated serum leptin levels. In the male patients, the results of this preliminary study also revealeda positive correlation between leptin levels andthe Aggression Risk Profile subscale of the PANSS. Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests possible gender-specific leptin dysregulation in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenic patients.

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