Sydenham’s chorea is a movement disorder seen in rheumatic fever with basal ganglia pathology. This disorder has been associated with an increased frequency of psychopathology in both the acute choreiform stage and later in life. We conducted a prospective study of 29 subjects with Sydenham’s chorea and 29 age- and sex-matched controls. The total number of psychiatric symptoms 10 years after the initial contact was much greater in the study group than in controls (p < 0.001). Similarly, schizophrenia was more common in the study group compared to controls (p < 0.01). Possible neuropathological associations and treatment are discussed.

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