The article entitled “Vitamin D Alleviates Cognitive Dysfunction by Activating the VDR/ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model” [Neuroimmunomodulation. 2021;27(4):178–85; DOI: 10.1159/000510400] by Zheng Bao, Xue Wang, Yuhong Li and Fumin Feng has been retracted by the current and former Publishers and the Editor on behalf of the authors.

After publication of the article, concerns were raised regarding the figures of this article. Specifically, parts of Figure 2E and Figure 2H of this article were found to be duplicates of Figure 2B of another previously published article by different authors [1]. In addition, part of Figure 2E of this article was found to partially overlap with Figure 4A of another previously published article by different authors [2]. When asked to comment on the above, the corresponding author acknowledged the similarities and stated that due to a relocation process of their university in 2016 and 2017, the preservation of specimens and pictures was negligent, which may have led to the image results getting mixed up. The authors requested retraction of the article. As the concerns raised about the figures cannot be addressed, the article has been retracted. When contacted about this retraction statement, the corresponding author stated their disagreement to the retraction and the statement.

Yuan J, Guo X, Liu Z, Zhao X, Feng Y, Song S, Cui C, Jiang P. Vitamin D receptor activation influences the ERK pathway and protects against neurological deficits and neuronal death. Int J Mol Med. 2018;41(1):364–72. DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2017.3249|
Ke B, Lu R, Zhang X. Phosphorylated Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) Improves Cognition in Rats with Diabetes-Associated Cognitive Decline. Med Sci Monit. 2019 May 6;25:3336–43. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.914653.