Objective: The increase in inflammatory activity associated with aging is a characteristic of chronic disease processes that accounts for most of the mortality in the elderly. Resistance training (RT) has been shown to promote metabolic and functional benefits in this population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between long-term RT and circulating levels of the proinflammatory mediators IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ in elderly women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 54 older outpatients divided into a group that underwent RT (n = 28) for an average of 8.6 ± 0.3 months and a sedentary group (n = 26). Measurements were taken only at the end of the intervention, and cytokine values were log-transformed. Dietary intake was controlled as a confounding factor. Results: The RT group presented reduced levels of log10IFN-γ (approx. 45%; p = 0.003), log10IL-6 (approx. 30%; p = 0.002) and log10TNF-α (approx. 22%; p = 0.036). Total caloric intake and systolic arterial blood pressure were significantly lower in the RT group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.022, respectively). Pearson’s product moment correlation test revealed a negative association between the fat-free mass (FFM) index and log-transformed IL-6 levels (p = 0.03; n = 54) and a trend towards significance for the correlation between the FFM index and log10IFN-γ (p = 0.05; n = 54). Conclusion: Long-term, moderate-intensity RT in elderly women is associated with lower circulating levels of cytokines that are potentially implicated in disorders associated with physical inactivity and aging.

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