The prevalence of atopic diseases and diabetes is increasing worldwide, though the co-occurrence of both diseases in the same individual is less frequent than predicted. Previously published studies suggest that the Th1/Th2 concept could explain the inverse relationship between allergic diseases and type 1 diabetes. However, down-regulation of the IgE-mast cell system can also markedly contribute to the lack of responsiveness to local and systemic allergen challenges in diabetic conditions. Moreover, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and elevated endogenous glucocorticoid levels play a pertinent role in some of the pathological-related processes associated with poorly controlled or uncontrolled diabetes.

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