Objective: It was the aim of this study to evaluate whether chronic pain in athletes is related to performance, measured by the maximum oxygen consumption and production of hormones and cytokines. Methods: Fifty-five athletes with a mean age of 31.9 ± 4.2 years engaged in regular competition and showing no symptoms of acute inflammation, particularly fever, were studied. They were divided into 2 subgroups according to the occurrence of pain. Plasma concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, prolactin, growth hormone and dopamine were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-α and prostaglandin E2 by whole-blood culture. Maximal oxygen consumption was determined during an incremental treadmill test. Results: There was no change in the concentration of stress hormones, but the athletes with chronic pain showed a reduction in maximum oxygen consumption (22%) and total consumption at the anaerobic threshold (25%), as well as increased cytokine production. Increases of 2.7-, 8.1-, 1.7- and 3.7-fold were observed for IL-1, IL-2, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-α, respectively. Conclusions: Our data show that athletes with chronic pain have enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators and reduced performance in the ergospirometric test.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.