Background/Aims: Mutations in the type 2 vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR2) underlie X-linked recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Here, we report on a family with a mutation in AVPR2, c.262G>A (p.V88M). This recurrently identified mutation was previously shown to abolish AVPR2 function, yet in some affected members, urine osmolalities of up to 570 mosm/kg were observed. We detail the variable clinical phenotype and investigate its molecular basis. Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical data and in vitro assessment of wild-type and V88M-mutant receptors. Results: Clinical data were available on 6 patients. Four of these demonstrated a substantial increase in urinary concentration after 1-desamino[8-D-arginine] vasopressin, consistent with partial NDI, while 2 did not respond. In vitro analysis revealed a reduced cell surface expression and decreased binding affinity for arginine-vasopressin of the mutant receptor, leading to blunted signaling activity. Treatment with the pharmacological chaperone SR121463 enhanced cell surface expression. Conclusion: The V88M mutation is associated with phenotypical diversity, which may be explained by the fact that both the expression level and the hormone-binding affinity are affected by the mutation. Our results provide a rational basis for treatment trials with vasopressin analogues in combination with pharmacologic chaperones in patients with this recurrently identified mutation.