Introduction: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) may cause severe pulmonary and neurologic injuries in affected infants after birth, leading to long-term adverse pulmonary or neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods: This retrospective population-based cohort study enrolled 1,554,069 mother-child pairs between 2004 and 2014. A total of 8,049 infants were in the MAS-affected group, whereas 1,546,020 were in the healthy control group. Children were followed up for at least 3 years. According to respiratory support, MAS was classified as mild, moderate, and severe. With the healthy control group as the reference, the associations between MAS severity and adverse pulmonary outcomes (hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of hospital stay, or invasive ventilator support during admission related to pulmonary problem) or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes (cerebral palsy, needs for rehabilitation, visual impairment, or hearing impairment) were accessed. Results: MAS-affected infants had a higher risk of hospital and ICU admission and longer length of hospital stay, regardless of severity. Infants with severe MAS had a higher risk of invasive ventilator support during re-admission (odds ratio: 17.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.70–39.75, p < 0.001). Moderate (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.30–2.13, p < 0.001) and severe (HR: 4.94, 95% CI: 4.94–7.11, p < 0.001) MAS groups had a higher risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, and the statistical significance remained remarkable in severe MAS group after adjusting for covariates (adjusted HR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.54–3.38, p < 0.001) Conclusions: Adverse pulmonary or neurodevelopmental outcomes could occur in MAS-affected infants at birth. Close monitoring and follow-up of MAS-affected infants are warranted.

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