Introduction: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants, but its effect on brain growth in preterm infants after the neonatal period is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of severe BPD on brain growth of preterm infants from term to 18 months of corrected age (CA). Methods: Sixty-three preterm infants (42 with severe BPD and 21 without severe BPD) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent age (TEA) and 18 months of CA were studied by using the Infant Brain Extraction and Analysis Toolbox (iBEAT). We measured segmented brain volumes and compared brain volume and brain growth velocity between the severe BPD group and the non-severe BPD group. Results: There was no significant difference in brain volumes at TEA between the groups. However, the brain volumes of the total brain and cerebral white matter in the severe BPD group were significantly smaller than those in the non-severe BPD group at 18 months of CA. The brain growth velocities from TEA to 18 months of CA in the total brain, cerebral cortex, and cerebral white matter in the severe BPD group were lower than those in the non-severe BPD group. Conclusion: Brain growth in preterm infants with severe BPD from TEA age to 18 months of CA is less than that in preterm infants without severe BPD.

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