Background: Measures of body size at birth are widely used for the evaluation of prenatal growth but limitations exist in their interpretation. Objective: To establish the percentile curves for the six common anthropometric indices (PI: ponderal index, BMI: body mass index, THR: thigh circumference/head circumference ratio, MAC/OFC: mid-arm circumference/head circumference, W/OFC: weight/head circumference, and W/L: weight/length) and determine the best anthropometric index for evaluating intrauterine nutritional status in Chinese neonates. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional anthropometric study was carried out. The anthropometric measurements were performed according to the Hall’s guidelines within 48 h of birth. Results: 10,226 infants (5,422 males, 4,804 females) with gestation 28–42 weeks from 12 hospitals were included for analysis. All of the six anthropometric indices correlated well with total skinfold thickness (T-SF, the sum of triceps skinfold thickness and subscapular skinfold thickness; p < 0.0001). Among the six anthropometric indices, W/L showed the highest correlation coefficient with T-SF (r = 0.622; p < 0.0001 in whole group, r = 0.653; p < 0.0001 in preterm infants, r = 0.612; p < 0.0001 in term infants). Conclusion: The present study establishes the gender-specific reference curves for the six important anthropometric indices in Chinese infants. W/L is a readily available index at birth that reflects the intrauterine nutritional state.

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