Background: Tenascin-C (TN-C), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is crucial to cell-migration, proliferation, apoptosis and remodeling of tissues, with a potential role in pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. Matrix metallopro-teinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are crucial to the integrity of the extracellular matrix. TN-C and MMPs are counter-regulatory molecules, which influence the vascular integrity through modulations of elastin. We have a murine model of pulmonary hypoplasia with coexistent diaphragmatic hernia, vascular abnormalities and excessive arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. Objectives: Our objective was to investigate modulations of TN-C and MMPs in hypoplastic lungs and their possible contribution to the observed pulmonary vascular abnormalities. Methods: We addressed our objectives by pursing immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry and zymography/reverse zymography to assess the alterations in activities of MMPs and their inhibitors. Results: We observed significant down-regulation of MMP-9 activity in hypoplastic lungs at the later fetal developmental stages, whereas MMP-2 activity assessed by gelatin zymography remained unaltered. Reverse zymography revealed up-regulation of activities of TIMP-1, -2, -3 and -4 in hypoplastic lungs during later fetal development, with pronounced increases in TIMP-3 and -4 activities. Furthermore, immunoblot analyses and immunohistochemistry revealed that TN-C protein was down-regulated in developing hypoplastic lungs, compared to normal lungs. Conclusions: (1)TN-C is known to inhibit vascular SMC proliferation. But, decrease in TN-C in hypoplastic lungs may support the observed arterial SMC proliferation. (2) Our studies showed that in hypoplastic lungs the SMC apoptosis is not affected, thus suggesting that SMC proliferation and apoptosis may be two separate processes in pulmonary hypoplasia with coexistent diaphragmatic hernia. Together, our data showed an imbalance in the extracellular matrix proteins, which may contribute to the pulmonary vascular abnormalities.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.