This study represents a 1-year surveillance period using our epidemiology-based principles published and successfully followed since 1979: weekly culture for yeasts of oral and anal swabs, treatment with oral nystatin of all colonized newborns, and good hygiene/handwashing. Colonization was demonstrated in 23 out of 791 newborns admitted from October 1998 to September 1999. Twenty-two strains of Candida were identified: 16 C. albicans, 2 C. parapsilosis, 3 C. glabrata, and 1 C. tropicalis. Symptoms were erythema of the buttocks in 6 colonized newborns. No other culture positive for Candida could be found. Previous contamination was the main source (previous stay in an intensive care unit, rarely maternal origin). Contamination in the unit was unlikely. Eradication of Candida could be observed within 1 week. These good results, controversial in the literature, were obtained following epidemiological conclusions and support our guidelines.

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