Objectives: To investigate the level of thrombopoietin in the cord blood of preterm infants, and its relationship with neonatal platelet count and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Study Method: Thrombopoietin levels in the cord blood of preterm neonates, with or without maternal pregnancy-induced hypertension, were measured by enzmye-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The platelet count was significantly lower in very low birth weight infants, infants with maternal pregnancy-induced hypertension, and infants with maternal thrombocytopenia. Neonatal thrombocytopenia was associated with maternal pregnancy-induced hypertension and very low birth weight. The neonatal platelet count was correlated significantly with the birth weight and the maternal platelet count. There was no difference in the cord blood level of thrombopoietin between infants born to mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension and those without. No correlation was found between the thrombopoietin level and the neonatal platelet count. A positive correlation between the cord blood thrombopoietin and the maternal platelet count was identified. Conclusion: Maternal pregnancy-induced hypertension and very low birth weight were significantly associated with thrombocytopenia in premature infants, which cannot be explained by decreased thrombopoietin level.