Colostrum samples were collected on the third day postpartum from 41 Slovenian women living in urban (n = 27) or rural (n = 14) areas. The fatty acid composition of total lipids, analysed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography, was very similar in women from both areas. The only difference was a higher content of oleic acid (18:1n–9) in rural vs. urban areas (36.85 vs. 34.94 wt%, p < 0.05). The fatty acid composition of colostrum lipids in Slovenia was as follows (mean wt%): saturated 37.68, monounsaturated 40.49, polyunsaturated 21.82, linoleic acid (18:2n–6) 15.25, α-linolenic acid (18:3n–3) 0.91, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n–3) 0.43 and arachidonic acid (20:4n–6) 1.03. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids was 0.58 and the ratio of n–6 to n–3 fatty acids was 8.0. Compared to published data on the colostrum fatty acid composition in other European, American and Asian countries, colostrum from Slovenian women is most similar to Spanish and French colostrum, probably due to a similar fatty acid composition of dietary lipids.

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