Quality of spontaneous movement behavior (fluency, spatiotemporal variation and sequencing) was studied from birth to term in high-risk preterm (n = 18), low-risk preterm (n = 18) and term (n = 20) infants. Cranial ultrasonography was performed during the first week of life and the child’s general health was considered. The results were as follows: (1) In their first week of life, preterm infants displayed lower scores on all quality parameters when compared to term infants (p < 0.001). (2) Quality of spatiotemporal variation and sequencing decreased up to term (p < 0.01). These findings could be attributed to maturational differences, too early exposure to an extrauterine environment, and cerebral lesions.

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