The metabolic and hormonal effect of Escherichia coli endotoxin injected intraperitoneally was studied in fed and starved rabbits aged 6–9 days. Fed rabbits responded to endotoxin with fever, starved animals became hypothermic. Endotoxin caused a transient rise in blood glucose in both groups which was associated with a rise in plasma insulin concentration. Blood glycerol levels fell only in starved rabbits, and hydroxybutyrate concentration in both groups following endotoxin treatment. No change in blood pyruvate, lactate, alanine, or acetoacetate level was observed in either group.