Introduction: Limited studies have explored the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of neonatal tuberculosis (TB). Here, we attempted to delineate the clinical characteristics of neonatal TB, which may help clinicians further understand this disease. Methods: A retrospective analysis of neonates diagnosed with congenital and/or neonatal TB disease from January 2010 to December 2020 was performed. Information on the demographic and epidemiological features, clinical symptoms, laboratory and imaging examinations, therapeutic regimens, and outcomes was collected. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to present the time to disease onset, time to diagnosis, etc. Results: Forty-eight cases of neonatal TB were classified into congenital (n = 33) and postnatal (n = 15). The median time to disease onset in postnatal group was significantly longer than that in congenital group. Positive results for gastric fluid acid-fast bacilli, TB culture, Xpert MTB/RIF, interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), and tuberculin skin test were detected in 26/48 (54.2%), 14/34 (41.2%), 11/18 (61.1%), 19/29 (65.5%), and 8/24 (33.3%) patients, respectively. For lymphadenopathy, computed tomography (CT) scans showed a higher detection rate than did X-ray (80.0% vs. 0). Of the 48 infants, 44/48 (91.7%) received anti-TB therapy, and 33/44 (75%) were clinically improved or cured after 22.1 months (interquartile range: 12.4–27.7) of follow-up. Drug-induced liver injury occurred in 14/44 (31.8%) patients. Discussion/Conclusion: IGRA and Xpert MTB/RIF showed good positive rate in neonatal TB infection/disease. In cases where TB is presumed but etiological evidence is lacking, low-dose CT could be considered. Prompt treatment under careful surveillance is important for preventing mortality and avoiding severe adverse effects.

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