Objective: We aimed to examine the association between placental abnormalities and neurodevelopmental outcomes in a multicenter cohort of newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) that underwent therapeutic hypothermia. We hypothesized that subjects with acute placental abnormalities would have reduced risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 2 years of age after undergoing therapeutic hypothermia compared to subjects without acute placental changes. Study Design: Among 500 subjects born at ≥36 weeks gestation with moderate or severe HIE enrolled in the High-dose Erythropoietin for Asphyxia and Encephalopathy (HEAL) Trial, a placental pathologist blinded to clinical information reviewed clinical pathology reports to determine the presence of acute only, chronic only, or both acute and chronic histologic abnormalities. We calculated adjusted relative risks (aRRs) for associations between placental pathologic abnormalities and death or NDI at age 2 years, adjusting for HIE severity, treatment assignment, and site. Result: 321/500 subjects (64%) had available placental pathology reports. Placental abnormalities were characterized as acute only (20%), chronic only (21%), both acute and chronic (43%), and none (15%). The risk of death or NDI was not statistically different between subjects with and without an acute placental abnormality (46 vs. 53%, aRR 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 1.4). Subjects with two or more chronic lesions were more likely to have an adverse outcome than subjects with no chronic abnormalities, though this did not reach statistical significance (55 vs. 45%, aRR 1.24, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.56). Conclusion: Placental pathologic findings were not independently associated with risk of death or NDI in subjects with HIE. The relationship between multiple chronic placental lesions and HIE outcomes deserves further study.