Introduction: Lactotroph pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) are common pituitary tumors, but their underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the transcriptomic landscape of lactotroph PitNETs and identify potential molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets through RNA sequencing and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). Methods: Lactotroph PitNET tissues from five surgical cases without dopamine agonist treatment underwent RNA sequencing. Normal pituitary tissues from 3 patients served as controls. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and the functional pathways and gene networks were explored by IPA. Results: Transcriptome analysis revealed that lactotroph PitNETs had gene expression patterns that were distinct from normal pituitary tissues. We identified 1,172 upregulated DEGs, including nine long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) belonging to the top 30 DEGs. IPA of the upregulated DEGs showed that the estrogen receptor signaling, oxidative phosphorylation signaling, and EIF signaling were activated. In gene network analysis, key upstream regulators, such as EGR1, PRKACA, PITX2, CREB1, and JUND, may play critical roles in lactotroph PitNETs. Conclusion: This study provides a comprehensive transcriptomic profile of lactotroph PitNETs and highlights the potential involvement of lincRNAs and specific signaling pathways in tumor pathogenesis. The identified upstream regulators may be potential therapeutic targets for future investigations.

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