Introduction: The association of serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations with dementia risk remains uncertain in middle-aged to older women. We examined associations of serum SHBG levels with incidence of all-cause dementia and its subtypes in middle-aged to older women from the large population-based UK Biobank cohort study. Methods: Serum total SHBG levels were measured by immunoassay. The incidence of all-cause dementia and its subtypes was recorded. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for main outcomes. Results: Among 171,482 community-dwelling women (mean [SD] age was 59.9 [5.4] years, median follow-up of 11.8 years), 2,368 developed dementia, including 1,088 from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 451 from vascular dementia (VAD), and 1,609 from other dementia. After multivariable adjustments, higher serum SHBG levels were significantly associated with higher risks of all-cause dementia, AD, and other dementia (all p < 0.05). Compared to those in the lowest quartile of SHBG levels, participants in the highest quartile of SHBG levels had a higher risk of all-cause dementia (HR: 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.53), AD (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.07–1.62), and other dementia (HR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.21–1.70). However, this relationship was not significant for VAD (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.86–1.56). Conclusion: These findings indicated that higher serum SHBG concentrations were independently associated with higher risks of incident all-cause dementia, as well as AD and other dementia among middle-aged to older women. No association was found for VAD.