The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the periventricular nucleus (Pe) are important neuroendocrine centers, but the neuronal input to these regions is poorly defined in nonrodent species. We utilized the retrograde transport of injected tracers to determine the neural input to these two nuclei in the ovine brain. Adult Corriedale ewes were studied following FluoroGold injection into either the PVN (n = 5) or the Pe (n = 3). Both the PVN and the Pe were found to receive neuronal input from a number of hypothalamic nuclei. Projections to the PVN from the lateral hypothalamic area were from neurons that produce melanin-concentrating hormone or orexins and a subset of those from the arcuate nucleus were immunopositive for neuropeptide Y and γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone. This pathway was verified by staining of terminals in the PVN. Input to the PVN from the brain stem was seen to originate from the catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons. The projections to the PVN and Pe from hypothalamic and brain stem regions in the sheep brain are generally similar to those in the rat, with some minor differences. These studies highlight the differences in the afferent input to these two closely related nuclei in the ovine brain.

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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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