The endocrine tumors of the gut and pancreas tract are a group of neoplasms composed of cells with a neuroendocrine phenotype. Well-differentiated tumors, well-differentiated carcinomas and poorly differentiated carcinomas are the major categories identified. According to their localization (stomach, duodenum-jejunum, ileum, appendix and colorectum), they display distinct phenotypes, regarding their pathology, immunohistochemistry and hormonal syndromes. Their clinical behavior spans from benign, uncertain malignant potential, low-grade malignant to high-grade malignant. Currently, extensive work is performed to unravel the genetic background.

Bishop AE, Polak JM, Facer P, Ferri GL, Marangos PJ, Pearse AG: Neuron-specific enolase: A common marker for the endocrine cells and innervation of the gut and pancreas. Gastroenterology 1982;83:902–915.
Rode J, Dhillon AP, Doran JF, Jackson P, Thompson RJ: PGP 9.5, a new marker for human neuroendocrine tumours. Histopathology 1985;9:147–158.
Lloyd RV, Wilson BS: Specific endocrine tissue marker defined by a monoclonal antibody. Science 1983;222:628–630.
Wiedenmann B, Franke WW: Identification and localization of synaptophysin, an integral membrane glycoprotein of Mr 38,000 characteristic of presynaptic vesicles. Cell 1985;41:1017–1028.
Solcia E, Capella C, Fiocca R, Sessa F, LaRosa S, Rindi G: Disorders of the endocrine system; in Ming SC, Goldman H (eds): Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Philadelphia, Williams and Wilkins, 1998, pp 295–322.
Rindi G, Capella C, Solcia E: Pathobiology and classification of digestive endocrine tumors; in Mignon M, Colombel JF (eds): Recent Advances in the Pathophysiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Digestive Endocrine Tumors. Montrouge, Libbey Eurotext, 1999, pp 177–191.
Rindi G, Leiter AB, Kopin AS, Bordi C, Solcia E: The ‘normal’ endocrine cell of the gut: Changing concepts and new evidences. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1014:1–12.
Solcia E, Klöppel G, Sobin LH: Histological Typing of Endocrine Tumours. New York, Springer, 2000.
Soga J, Tazawa K: Pathologic analysis of carcinoids. Histologic reevaluation of 62 cases. Cancer 1971;28:990–998.
Pelosi G, Bresaola E, Bogina G, Pasini F, Rodella S, Castelli P, Iacono C, Serio G, Zamboni G: Endocrine tumors of the pancreas: Ki-67 immunoreactivity on paraffin sections is an independent predictor for malignancy: A comparative study with proliferating-cell nuclear antigen and progesterone receptor protein immunostaining, mitotic index, and other clinicopathologic variables. Hum Pathol 1996;27:1124–1134.
La Rosa S, Sessa F, Capella C, Riva C, Leone BE, Klersy C, Rindi G, Solcia E: Prognostic criteria in nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumours. Virchows Arch 1996;429:323–333.
Rindi G, Azzoni C, La Rosa S, Klersy C, Paolotti D, Rappel S, Stolte M, Capella C, Bordi C, Solcia E: ECL cell tumor and poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the stomach: Prognostic evaluation by pathological analysis. Gastroenterology 1999;116:532–542.
Rigaud G, Missiaglia E, Moore PS, Zamboni G, Falconi M, Talamini G, Pesci A, Baron A, Lissandrini D, Rindi G, Grigolato P, Pederzoli P, Scarpa A: High resolution allelotype of nonfunctional pancreatic endocrine tumors: Identification of two molecular subgroups with clinical implications. Cancer Res 2001;61:285–292.
Hochwald SN, Zee S, Conlon KC, Colleoni R, Louie O, Brennan MF, Klimstra DS: Prognostic factors in pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: An analysis of 136 cases with a proposal for low-grade and intermediate-grade groups. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2633–2642.
Rindi G, Bordi C: Highlights of the biology of endocrine tumours of the gut and pancreas. Endocr Relat Cancer 2003;10:427–436.
Kloppel G, Perren A, Heitz PU: The gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine cell system and its tumors: The WHO classification. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1014:13–27.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.