Background: Above-label doses of somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are increasingly utilized in the management of inoperable/metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), progressing on standard 4-weekly regimens. Objective: To evaluate the antiproliferative effect of 3-weekly SSA administration in a retrospective GEP-NET cohort. Methods: Patients with advanced GEP-NET, treated with long-acting release (LAR) octreotide 30 mg or lanreotide Autogel 120 mg at a 3-weekly interval, after disease progression on standard 4-weekly doses, were retrospectively identified. Clinicopathologic and treatment response data were collected. Progression-free survival (PFS; dose escalation to radiographic progression or death) was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with PFS were identified with the Cox proportional-hazards model. Results: The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 105 patients. Octreotide LAR was administered to 60 (57%) and lanreotide Autogel to 45 (43%). Indications for dose escalation were breakthrough carcinoid symptoms (58%), radiographic progression (35%) and/or increasing biomarkers (11%). Diarrheal and/or flushing symptomatic improvement was identified in 37/67 cases (55%) and 30/55 cases (55%) with available data, respectively. The disease control rate (radiographic partial response or stable disease) was achieved in 53 patients (50%). Median PFS was 25.0 months (95% CI 16.9–33.1). Patients with radiographic progression <12 months from 4-weekly SSA initiation had worse PFS after dose escalation (7.0 vs. 17.0 months, p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, pancreatic NETs, a Ki-67 index ≥5% and multiple extrahepatic metastases were independently associated with inferior PFS. Conclusions: Above-label doses of SSAs may offer a considerable prolongation of PFS and could be utilized as a bridge to other more toxic treatments. Patients with small bowel/colorectal primaries, a Ki-67 index <5% and absence of/limited extrahepatic metastases are more likely to benefit from this approach.

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