Introduction: Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) is the most prevalent cause of delayed puberty in both sexes. Family history of delayed puberty (2 or more affected members in a family) has been evidenced in 50–75% of patients with CDGP and the inheritance is often consistent with autosomal dominant pattern, with or without complete penetrance. However, the molecular basis of CDGP is not completely understood. Objective: To characterize the clinical and genetic features of a CDGP cohort. Methods: Fifty-nine patients with CDGP (48 boys and 11 girls) underwent careful and long-term clinical evaluation. Genetic analysis was performed using a custom DNA target enrichment panel designed to capture 36 known and candidate genes implicated with pubertal development. Results: All patients had spontaneous or induced pubertal development (transient hormonal therapy) prior to 18 years of age. The mean clinical follow-up time was 46 ± 28 months. Male predominance (81%), short stature (91%), and family history of delayed puberty (59%) were the main clinical features of this CDGP -cohort. Genetic analyses revealed 15 rare heterozygous missense variants in 15 patients with CDGP (25%) in seven different genes (IGSF10, GHSR, CHD7, SPRY4, WDR11, SEMA3A,and IL17RD). IGSF10 and GHSR were the most prevalent affected genes in this group. Conclusions: Several rare dominant variants in genes implicated with GnRH migration and metabolism were identified in a quarter of the patients with familial or sporadic CDGP, suggesting genetic heterogeneity in this frequent pediatric condition.

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