Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using 99mTc-[HYNIC, Tyr3]-octreotide (TOC) and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) in patients with SDHx-related syndromes in which paragangliomas were detected by computed tomography and to establish an optimal imaging diagnostic algorithm in SDHx mutation carriers. Methods: All carriers with clinical and radiological findings suggesting paragangliomas were screened by SRS and 123I-mIBG. Lesions were classified by body regions, i.e. head and neck, chest, abdomen with pelvis and adrenal gland as well as metastasis. Results: We evaluated 46 SDHx gene mutation carriers (32 index cases and 14 relatives; 28 SDHD, 16 SDHB and 2 SDHC). In this group, 102 benign tumors were found in 39 studied patients, and malignant disease was diagnosed in 7 patients. In benign tumors, the sensitivity of SRS was estimated at 77% and of 123I-mIBG at 22.0%. The SRS and mIBG sensitivity was found to be clearly region dependent (p < 0.001). The highest SRS sensitivity was found in head and neck paragangliomas (HNP; 91.4%) and the lowest was found in abdominal paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas (40 and 42.9%, respectively). The highest 123I-mIBG sensitivity was found in pheochromocytomas (sensitivity of 100%) and the lowest in HNP (sensitivity of 3.7%). In metastatic disease, SRS was superior to mIBG (sensitivity of 95.2 vs. 23.8%, respectively). Conclusion: SRS and 123I-mIBG single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) sensitivity in SDHx patients is highly body region dependent. In malignant tumors, SRS is superior to 123I-mIBG SPECT.

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