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Cystinuria (CYS) is the most common monogenic kidney stone disease. Starting from an unusual case of CYS associated to Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and autoimmune hepatitis in a young male, we carefully review the literature and propose here a working hypothesis regarding the potential risk of cystinuric patients to develop conditions due to immune system dysregulation. To corroborate this hypothesis, we retrospectively evaluate the frequency of dysimmunity in a cohort of cystinuric patients compared to healthy and disease controls. Further studies are needed to define the relationship between proximal tubular transport defect of CYS and dysregulated immunity.

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