Introduction: The aim of the study was to explore the association between urate-lowering agents and reduced response to erythropoietin-stimulating agents in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease G5. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, multicenter study in Japan between April and June 2013, enrolling patients aged 20 years or older with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤15 mL/min/1.73 m2. Exclusion criteria encompassed patients with a history of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or organ transplantation. The patients were categorized into four groups based on the use of urate-lowering drugs: high-dose allopurinol (>50 mg/day), low-dose allopurinol (≤50 mg/day), febuxostat, and no-treatment groups. We used a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for covariates, to determine the odds ratio (OR) for erythropoietin hyporesponsiveness, defined by an erythropoietin resistance index (ERI) of ≥10, associated with urate-lowering drugs. Results: A total of 542 patients were included in the analysis, with 105, 36, 165, and 236 patients in the high-dose allopurinol, low-dose allopurinol, febuxostat, and no-treatment groups, respectively. The median and quartiles of ERIs were 6.3 (0, 12.2), 3.8 (0, 11.2), 3.4 (0, 9.8), and 4.8 (0, 11.2) in the high-dose allopurinol, low-dose allopurinol, febuxostat, and no-treatment groups, respectively. The multivariate regression model showed a statistically significant association between the high-dose allopurinol group and erythropoietin hyporesponsiveness, compared to the no-treatment group (OR = 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.10–3.57). Conclusions: Our study suggests that the use of high-dose allopurinol exceeding the optimal dose may lead to hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.

This study aimed to investigate the link between urate-lowering drugs and a reduced response to erythropoietin-stimulating agents in patients with chronic kidney disease. The study included 542 patients in Japan with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤15 mL/min/1.73 m2, who were divided into four groups based on their use of urate-lowering drugs: high-dose allopurinol (>50 mg/day), low-dose allopurinol (≤50 mg/day), febuxostat, and no treatment. The researchers used a statistical model to analyze the odds ratio for erythropoietin hyporesponsiveness associated with the use of urate-lowering drugs. The study found a significant association between high-dose allopurinol use and erythropoietin hyporesponsiveness when compared to the no-treatment group. The results suggest that using high doses of allopurinol may lead to a decreased response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. The study was conducted between April and June 2013, and patients with a history of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or organ transplantation were excluded. The findings of this study may be useful for clinicians treating patients with chronic kidney disease who are taking urate-lowering drugs and need erythropoietin-stimulating agents.

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