We present a 50-year-old female who experienced generalized convulsion 3 months after a successful cadaveric renal transplantation. The first cerebral CT scan indicated cerebral frontal infarction. Repeat CT some days later revealed progressive lesions, and a highly malignant tumor or abscess was suspected. Antifungal and broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy was initiated. Cerebral MRI could not differentiate between these conditions, but a neutrophil granulocyte scan strongly suggested an infectious process. A stereotactic puncture of the frontal lobe was followed by temporary improvement. A severe progressive left-sided hemiparalysis gave indication for a craniotomy with evacuation of the abscess 9 days later. Culture of aspirated pus yielded growth of a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, later identified as Nocardia otitidiscaviarum by sequencing the 16S rRNA. The patient was treated with meropenem plus rifampicin intravenously for 6 weeks followed by oral ciprofloxacin and rifampicin for 2 months. Due to pharmacokinetic interaction with rifampicin, the prednisolone dose was doubled, and the dose of tacrolimus had to be tripled for maintenance of adequate trough concentrations. Five months following cessation of antibiotic treatment, the patient has regained normal strength and function in her left-sided extremities and has a serum creatinine level of about 160 µmol/l (1.8 mg/dl).

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